The conceptual framework of FITCA _ progress report..PDF
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African trypanosomosis is a disease of cattle and human beings caused by a protozoan parasite trypanosome spp. There are two forms of African trypanosomosis, human and bovine. The bovine trypanosomosis is caused by the tsetse-borne African species called nagana. In Africa, nagana occurs between the southern limits of the Sahara (14° N) to about 29° S. In eastern part of Africa, Trypanosoma congolense and Trypanosoma brucei are the predominant causes of bovine trypanosomosis. As indicated earlier, these parasites are transmitted by by tsetse flies Glossina spp. In Eastern Africa, the known vectors of animal trypanosomosis are Glosssina pallidipes,; Glossina longipennis,; Glossina swynnertani,; Glossina breupalpis,; Glossina morsitans. The species Glossina austeni and Glossina palpalis occur to a lesser degree. The principal vector of Trypanosoma congolense and Trypanosoma brucei is Glossina morsitans. The presence of African trypanosomes undermines potential livelihood opportunities for the vast majority of sub-Saharan Africa residents. For example, the human form of trypanosomosis infects approximately 300 000 people in Africa (UN Wire, 2000; Swallow, 2000). Besides, large swathes' of potentially suitable land for livestock production remain under-utilised2due to tsetse infestation. In aggregate terms, annual direct and indirect losses attributable to African trypanosomosis are estimated between US $ 1.6 billion to US $ 5 billion (Murray and Gray, 1984, Swallow 1998)3. Yet, tsetse and trypanosomosis control efforts in Africa dates back to the early part of the 20thCentury (Omamo and dieteren forthcoming). It is therefore evident that past tsetse and trypanosomosis control efforts have fallen short of expectations. Because of these experience FITCA is not only a tsetse control project but it is a rural development project. The philosophy of FITCA is to increase farmers' income by higher animal and crop productivity in order to enable them to pay for inputs needed for control schemes of tsetse flies, ticks and other pests after the end of the externally financed project, thus assuring sustainability.