Cross Sectional Cattle Disease Surveillance Bungoma District, Kenya..PDF
Mukhwana J. Eusebius
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This study was undertaken to identify the major diseases affecting and limiting the health and productivity of indigenous zebu cattle in 3 divisions of Bungoma district, Kenya. The survey established the prevalence rate of these diseases over the 2 months period (of the exercise) and looked at the effect of age and sex of cattle on infection by different diseases and conditions. During the survey, 1040 indigenous zebu cattle from 13 sub-locations had their samples (faeces, blood, lymph node smears and ticks, Amhyllyoma SPP) collected and analyzed both in the field and in the laboratory for trypanosomiasis, worms, babesiosis, anaplasmosis, east coast fever and cowdriosis. Biconical traps were also used (3-6 per sublocation) to trap tsetse flies which were later identified. Faecal samples were subjected to the McMaster egg counting technique and worm egg counts per gram of faeces determined. Blood was collected from the ear vein of target animals into heparinized capillary tubes for determination of the packed cell volume (PCV) which was used as an indicator of the anemia status for each animal. Examination of the buffy coat and thin as well as thick blood smears was used to study the presence of trypanosomiasis. Thin blood smears were also used to detect babesiosis and anaplasmosis, while lymph node smears were done to examine for East Coast fever. Samples of Ambylyomma SPP(ticks) were collected to analyze the present of cowdriosis. Out of the 1040 cattle examined as previously described, 28 (2.7%) were found to be positive for trypanosomiasis, 64 (6.15%) had east coast fever, 25 (2.4%) had babesiosis and 30 (2.9%) had anaplasmosis. Tamuleka had the highest number of trypanosomiasis cases (7), followed by Machakha (5) and Chebukuyi (4) and West Siboti (4). It was found in this study that 60.7% of all the trypanosomiasis case were caused by Trypanosome Congolense, and 39.3% by T. vivax. A total of 23 tsetse flies were got in this exercise from 54 traps laid out across in the study area. Tamuleka had the highest number of flies trapped (7), followed by Machakha (6) and Chebukuyi (4) over the 48 hour trapping period. Most of the flies got were G. pailidipes. The low fly numbers reported in this study could be due to high level trapping and baiting that was already going on in the area. There was uniform infection of all cattle in all areas with worms. About 30 — 50 animals in each sub-location were sampled for worm egg counts. Emphasis was given to young stock and those in poor condition. In general, this study reports an average worm egg count of 306.1 eggs per gramme of faeces for all areas and studied. Male calves had the highest EPG of 522, followed by female calves (448), female growers (303.8), male growers (257), female adults (252.2) and male adults (228.5) It was observed during this survey that there is a very high tick infestation in all the animals studied. This coupled with the tsetse fly situation calls for a combined tick and tsetse fly control program. It is also noted that provision of veterinary services in the area is a major constraint to farmers, which needs to be addressed.