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dc.description.abstractTsetse-Transmitted trypanosomosis has a direct devastating effect in livestock due to increased mortality, reduced milk yield, low live weight gain, infertility, increased rate of abortion and increased susceptibility to other infections. The indirect effects include loss of animal draught power and lack of nutrient cycling through manure. A non-tsetse-transmitted trypanosomosis affects camels, and is a crucial constraint to the development of the rangelands where camels and donkeys are the main basis of the economy. The potential of human sleeping sickness outbreaks is high in the Lake Victoria and Lake Kyoga Basins with nearly 5 million people at risk. Tsetse control in Kenya was based on the need to establish settlement schemes and most control methods made land available far more quickly than it could be effectively settled by the people. The increasing drug resistance due to usage of a limited number of drugs for a long time and improved tsetse control technologies has turned attention more on to tsetse control and eradication so as to recover the infested land. The tsetse and disease situation is compounded by competition for land for both human settlement and wildlife conservation. The control of tsetse and trypanosomosis is a core function of the Department of Veterinary Services. The Government has been the major player in the control of Tsetse and Trypanosomosis since the 1940s however the approaches did not include community participation and allowed very little private sector involvement. Due to shift in the government policy towards privatization and community involvement in development programmes, there has been an increased move to shift the responsibility of vector control to the end users. The major constraints hindering the achievements of effective tsetse and trypanosomosis control in the country include inadequate; 1. Policy, regulation and enforcement 2. Tsetse and trypanosomosis surveillance. 3. Trans boundary strategies for tsetse and trypanosomosis control 4. Emergency preparedness 5. Integrated livestock management approach 6. Domestic and wildlife conflict resolution 7. Human and financial resources for effective disease management. 8. Impact of HIV/AIDS on control programmes. 9. Security especially in ASAL 10. Coordination of tsetse and trypanosomosis control

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