A REVIEW OF POULTRY INDUSTRY AND BIOSECURITY STATUS IN KENYA.pdf
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The FAO avian Influenza project conducted a rapid assessment of biosecurity status using a few selected districts in Kenya. The importance of the study was based on the fact that biosecurity is the cheapest and one of the most effective means of controlling entry or escape of a disease along the poultry value chain. The aim of this study was to assess the current biosecurity status, risky practices that may facilitate entry or spread of HPAI into the country and the major constraints in implementation of biosecurity practices and policies at farm/market level. Opportunities for improvement of biosecurity were identified which will be used to develop practical biosecurity guidelines appropriate to specific production, marketing and processing scenario for safe poultry production, marketing and processing. During the study awareness creation was also done through distribution of materials on early detection, prevention and control of Avian Influenza. The study was carried out in four districts (Makueni, Kilifi, Busia, Bomet) and the periurban areas around Nairobi (Ngong, Ruiru, Uthiru, Wangige) representing all the different production and marketing systems from the high risk areas in the country. Study methodology involved household interview using structured questionnaires as well as focused group discussions of the key informants. The respondents included farmers, different traders at the markets and slaughterhouse operators. In addition to farm, markets, slaughterhouses, at least four hatcheries were also visited. A total of 410 households and 130 traders were interviewed. The study revealed that the four poultry production sectors are well represented in the country, but variations in terms of implementation of biosecurity practices conspicuously exist within each sector (except Sector 1 which is represented by one company).Biosecurity levels were found to be weakening as one goes down the sectors with sector 4 being completely insecure and very important in disease spread due to movement of birds both across and within regions for either trade or social purposes. In the event of disease outbreak in sector 4 restriction of bird movement should be well enforced in order to limit disease spread. Sector 3 is very vulnerable to disease incursion because of its dependency on sector 1 and 2 for inputs as well as the economic realities of the small holder mixed farming systems in which most of them are found. The following practices were identified as representing high biosecurity risk: Sector 1 and 2: Litter disposal at the end of the cycle Sector 3: • Home slaughter of broilers, hence sale of un - inspected meat • Within farm use or sale of raw poultry litter as fertilizer or dairy cattle feed • Poor carcass and slaughter wastes disposal • Some farms keep free ranging birds of different species alongside confined birds • Minimal use of protective clothing by poultry attendants • Feeding of raw offal to pigs and dogs 3 Sector 4: • Poultry sheltered in the same house with people • Poor vaccination of HPAI differentials such as NCD (in terms of coverage and consistency) • Transportation of live birds without equipment and human protection • Multi species and multi age rearing with free interaction between domestic and wild birds • People slaughtering or selling sick birds Lacks of awareness among different players, social, cultural, economic and institutional factors were cited as major factors responsible for the current biosecurity status. Farmers' training, enhanced stakeholder involvement, increased public awareness development of recording and documentation systems to enhance bird traceability, institutional capacity building and policy reviews are important measures that can greatly improve biosecurity in the poultry industry as well as make the sector more profitable.